Bolt-on necks, though they are historically associated with cheaper instruments, do offer greater flexibility in the guitar's set-up, and allow easier access for neck joint maintenance and repairs. Another type of neck, only available for solid body electric guitars, is the neck-through-body construction. These are designed so that everything from the machine heads down to the bridge are located on the same piece of wood. The sides (also known as wings) of the guitar are then glued to this central piece. Some luthiers prefer this method of construction as they claim it allows better sustain of each note. Some instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.
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Classical guitars, also known as "Spanish" guitars [11] , are typically strung with nylon strings, plucked with the fingers, played in a seated position and are used to play a diversity of musical styles including classical music. The classical guitar's wide, flat neck allows the musician to play scales, arpeggios, and certain chord forms more easily and with less adjacent string interference than on other styles of guitar. Flamenco guitars are very similar in construction, but they are associated with a more percussive tone. In Portugal, the same instrument is often used with steel strings particularly in its role within fado music. The guitar is called viola, or violão in Brazil, where it is often used with an extra seventh string by choro musicians to provide extra bass support.
Jump up ^ This sequence of fifths features the diminished fifth (b,f), which replaces the perfect fifth (b,f♯) containing the chromatic note f♯, which is not a member of the C-major key. The note f (of the C-major scale) is replaced by the note f♯ in the Lydian chromatic scale (Russell, "The fundamental harmonic structure of the Lydian scale", Example 1:7, "The C Lydian scale", p. 5).
In major-thirds tuning, the interval between open strings is always a major third. Consequently, four frets suffice to play the chromatic scale. Chord inversion is especially simple in major-thirds tuning. Chords are inverted simply by raising one or two notes by three strings. The raised notes are played with the same finger as the original notes.[22][23] In contrast, in standard tuning, the shape of inversions depends on the involvement of the irregular major-third.[24]
In contrast, regular tunings have equal intervals between the strings,[20] and so they have symmetrical scales all along the fretboard. This makes it simpler to translate chords. For the regular tunings, chords may be moved diagonally around the fretboard. The diagonal movement of chords is especially simple for the regular tunings that are repetitive, in which case chords can be moved vertically: Chords can be moved three strings up (or down) in major-thirds tuning and chords can be moved two strings up (or down) in augmented-fourths tuning. Regular tunings thus appeal to new guitarists and also to jazz-guitarists, whose improvisation is simplified by regular intervals.
Dots are usually inlaid into the upper edge of the fretboard in the same positions, small enough to be visible only to the player. These usually appear on the odd numbered frets, but also on the 12th fret (the one octave mark) instead of the 11th and 13th frets. Some older or high-end instruments have inlays made of mother of pearl, abalone, ivory, colored wood or other exotic materials and designs. Simpler inlays are often made of plastic or painted. High-end classical guitars seldom have fretboard inlays as a well-trained player is expected to know his or her way around the instrument. In addition to fretboard inlay, the headstock and soundhole surround are also frequently inlaid. The manufacturer's logo or a small design is often inlaid into the headstock. Rosette designs vary from simple concentric circles to delicate fretwork mimicking the historic rosette of lutes. Bindings that edge the finger and sound boards are sometimes inlaid. Some instruments have a filler strip running down the length and behind the neck, used for strength or to fill the cavity through which the truss rod was installed in the neck.
The playing of conventional chords is simplified by open tunings, which are especially popular in folk, blues guitar and non-Spanish classical guitar (such as English and Russian guitar). For example, the typical twelve-bar blues uses only three chords, each of which can be played (in every open tuning) by fretting six-strings with one finger. Open tunings are used especially for steel guitar and slide guitar. Open tunings allow one-finger chords to be played with greater consonance than do other tunings, which use equal temperament, at the cost of increasing the dissonance in other chords.
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Chords are the backbone of most guitar music. As a beginner, mastering the most common chords allows you to play along to popular songs and even start writing your own. Technically speaking, a chord is a group of three or more notes played in one smooth strumming motion. Chords are classified according to the overall effect they produce. Major and minor chords, which create happy and sad sounds, respectively, are the most basic chords you'll need to play beginner-friendly songs.
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Play each note of the chord one after another (known as playing an arpeggio) to check if any are being accidently muted or need pressing down harder. If you find that you're accidently muting a string with one of your fingers, try lowering your thumb so the tip reaches around half way up the back of the guitar neck. This gives your fingers a better angle to approach the fretboard.
A six-string guitar has five musical-intervals between its consecutive strings. In standard tuning, the intervals are four perfect-fourths and one major-third, the comparatively irregular interval for the (G,B) pair. Consequently, standard tuning requires four chord-shapes for the major chords. There are separate chord-forms for chords having their root note on the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth strings.[41] Of course, a beginner learns guitar by learning notes and chords,[42] and irregularities make learning the guitar difficult[43]—even more difficult than learning the formation of plural nouns in German, according to Gary Marcus.[44] Nonetheless, most beginners use standard tuning.[45]
As previously stated, a dominant seventh is a four-note chord combining a major chord and a minor seventh. For example, the C7 dominant seventh chord adds B♭ to the C-major chord (C,E,G). The naive chord (C,E,G,B♭) spans six frets from fret 3 to fret 8;[49] such seventh chords "contain some pretty serious stretches in the left hand".[46] An illustration shows a naive C7 chord, which would be extremely difficult to play,[49] besides the open-position C7 chord that is conventional in standard tuning.[49][50] The standard-tuning implementation of a C7 chord is a second-inversion C7 drop 2 chord, in which the second-highest note in a second inversion of the C7 chord is lowered by an octave.[49][51][52] Drop-two chords are used for sevenths chords besides the major-minor seventh with dominant function,[53] which are discussed in the section on intermediate chords, below. Drop-two chords are used particularly in jazz guitar.[54] Drop-two second-inversions are examples of openly voiced chords, which are typical of standard tuning and other popular guitar-tunings.[55]
Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, ribs, and a flat back, most often with incurved sides."[2] The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and, later, in the Americas.[3] A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.[2]
Learn a G major. Your ring finger goes on the top string, 3rd fret. The middle finger is for the 5th string, 2nd fret, and you pinky goes all the way to the bottom, on the 3rd fret of the 1st string. Strum all of the strings together to play the chord. If you want, add in the 3rd fret, 2nd string -- this not is not necessary, but makes a richer sounding chord.

the fifth, which is a perfect fifth above the root; consequently, the fifth is a third above the third—either a minor third above a major third or a major third above a minor third.[13][14] The major triad has a root, a major third, and a fifth. (The major chord's major-third interval is replaced by a minor-third interval in the minor chord, which shall be discussed in the next subsection.)

the fifth, which is a perfect fifth above the root; consequently, the fifth is a third above the third—either a minor third above a major third or a major third above a minor third.[13][14] The major triad has a root, a major third, and a fifth. (The major chord's major-third interval is replaced by a minor-third interval in the minor chord, which shall be discussed in the next subsection.)

Learn a D major. This chord only requires the bottom four strings. Place your index finger on the 3rd string, 2nd fret. Your ring finger then goes on the 2nd string, 3rd fret, and your middle finger is the 1st string, second fret. You'll form a little triangle shape. Only strum these three strings and the 4th string -- the open D -- to sound out the chord.


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For example, if the note E (the open sixth string) is played over the A minor chord, then the chord would be [0 0 2 2 1 0]. This has the note E as its lowest tone instead of A. It is often written as Am/E, where the letter following the slash indicates the new bass note. However, in popular music it is usual to play inverted chords on the guitar when they are not part of the harmony, since the bass guitar can play the root pitch.
The lower strap button is usually located at the bottom (bridge end) of the body. The upper strap button is usually located near or at the top (neck end) of the body: on the upper body curve, at the tip of the upper "horn" (on a double cutaway), or at the neck joint (heel). Some electrics, especially those with odd-shaped bodies, have one or both strap buttons on the back of the body. Some Steinberger electric guitars, owing to their minimalist and lightweight design, have both strap buttons at the bottom of the body. Rarely, on some acoustics, the upper strap button is located on the headstock. Some acoustic and classical guitars only have a single strap button at the bottom of the body—the other end must be tied onto the headstock, above the nut and below the machine heads.
The three notes of a major triad have been introduced as an ordered triplet, namely (root, third, fifth), where the major third is four semitones above the root and where the perfect fifth is seven semitones above the root. This type of triad is in closed position. Triads are quite commonly played in open position: For example, the C-major triad is often played with the third (E) and fifth (G) an octave higher, respectively sixteen and nineteen semitones above the root. Another variation of the major triad changes the order of the notes: For example, the C-major triad is often played as (C,G,E), where (C,G) is a perfect fifth and E is raised an octave above the perfect third (C,E). Alternative orderings of the notes in a triad are discussed below (in the discussions of chord inversions and drop-2 chords).
For experienced players, you already know what kind of questions need to be brought up when purchasing a guitar. For beginners, a great starting point is to look at what your favorite guitarists play. By taking your own musical tastes into consideration, you can narrow down your choices to models that will provide the tone and sound you already know and love. But whatever you're looking for, you can be certain that the perfect guitar for you can easily be found, right here. Just take a look around and see for yourself.
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On guitars that have them, these components and the wires that connect them allow the player to control some aspects of the sound like volume or tone using knobs, switches, or buttons. The most basic electronic control is a volume knob. Some guitars also have a tone-control knob, and some guitars with multiple pickups have pickup selector switches or knobs to determine which pickup(s) are activated. At their simplest, these consist of passive components, such as potentiometers and capacitors, but may also include specialized integrated circuits or other active components requiring batteries for power, for preamplification and signal processing, or even for electronic tuning. In many cases, the electronics have some sort of shielding to prevent pickup of external interference and noise.
Inlays are visual elements set into the exterior surface of a guitar, both for decoration and artistic purposes and, in the case of the markings on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 12th fret (and in higher octaves), to provide guidance to the performer about the location of frets on the instrument. The typical locations for inlay are on the fretboard, headstock, and on acoustic guitars around the soundhole, known as the rosette. Inlays range from simple plastic dots on the fretboard to intricate works of art covering the entire exterior surface of a guitar (front and back). Some guitar players have used LEDs in the fretboard to produce unique lighting effects onstage. Fretboard inlays are most commonly shaped like dots, diamond shapes, parallelograms, or large blocks in between the frets.
Guitars have been played since the Renaissance era, after descending from the ancient Greek instrument, the kithara. Or, at least, that's how the theory goes: the only real proof for this is the similarities between the Greek word and the Spanish word, quitarra. Early guitars often had four strings, evolving into the six-string version we know today in the late 1600s. Anton Stradivari, the famous violin-maker, also had a hand in making guitars. There's now only one Stradivarius guitar left in existence.
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